This induction varies in speed of onset and severity depending on the specific nutrient deficiency. Auxin levels peak early after cutting in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and pea (Ahkami et al., 2013; Rasmussen et al., 2015) and then decrease, while cytokinin levels rapidly plummet with the removal of roots and then begin to recover at later stages (Bollmark et al., 1988; Rasmussen et al., 2015). Together with ethylene, auxin positively regulates adventitious root initiation through DIAGEOTROPICA (DGT; Vidoz et al., 2010; Lombardi-Crestana et al., 2012), which encodes SlCYP1, a cyclophilin A-type protein. Furthermore, WOX11 rice lines had reduced cytokinin signaling (Chen et al., 2015). The cereal crops wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (Oryza sativa), and maize (Zea mays) provide 60% of global caloric intake (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations). They have a definite shape, eg., Dahlia. Newly formed adventitious roots of many species develop aerenchyma in the root cortex together with an inducible barrier of thickened cell walls to prevent radial oxygen loss upon flooding (Drew et al., 1979; Colmer et al., 2006; Argus et al., 2015). Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. ); and. These larger root systems also showed improved uptake of other nutrients (Gamuyao et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2015), resulting in higher yield (Chen et al., 2015). When nutrients are deficient, the expression of nutrient transporters increases. Published February 2016. (Hoad and Leakey, 1996). Work has begun on improving tolerance to nutrient-deficient conditions by introducing genes linked to changes in root architecture, such as PHOSPHORUS-STARVATION TOLERANCE1 (PSTOL1; Gamuyao et al., 2012) or the WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene OsWOX11 (Chen et al., 2015). An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany, The wound response in tomato: role of jasmonic acid, A transmission and cryo-scanning electron microscopy study of the formation of aerenchyma (cortical gas-filled space) in adventitious roots of rice (Oryza sativa), Response to zinc deficiency of two rice lines with contrasting tolerance is determined by root growth maintenance and organic acid exudation rates, and not by zinc-transporter activity, Performance of seminal and nodal roots of wheat in stagnant solution: K, An ethylene-inducible component of signal transduction encoded by never-ripe, A PIN1 family gene, OsPIN1, involved in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering in rice, Shoot-derived signals other than auxin are involved in systemic regulation of strigolactone production in roots, Phosphorus deficiency in red clover promotes exudation of orobanchol, the signal for mycorrhizal symbionts and germination stimulant for root parasites, Cell-type specific gene expression analyses by RNA-Seq reveal local high nitrate triggered lateral root initiation in shoot-borne roots of maize by modulating auxin-related cell cycle-regulation, Phenotypic plasticity of the maize root system in response to heterogeneous nitrogen availability, Hydrogen sulfide promotes root organogenesis in Ipomoea batatas, Salix matsudana and Glycine max, Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara, Effect of polar auxin transport on rice root development, Plant Secondary Metabolites as Defenses, Regulators, and Primary Metabolites: The Blurred Functional Trichotomy, Understanding Past, and Predicting Future, Niche Transitions based on Grass Flowering Time Variation, Targeting Root Ion Uptake Kinetics to Increase Plant Productivity and Nutrient Use Efficiency, Xylem Embolism Resistance Determines Leaf Mortality during Drought in, Visualizing Embolism Propagation in Gas-Injected Leaves, Fluctuating Light Interacts with Time of Day and Leaf Development Stage to Reprogram Gene Expression, by The American Society of Plant Biologists,,, CASE STUDY 1: FLOOD-INDUCED ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS, CASE STUDY 2: ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS FOR IMPROVED NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY, CASE STUDY 3: WOUND-INDUCED ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS: CUTTING PROPAGATION. Polyphenols do this via reducing auxin degradation. [2014]). In phosphorus-efficient lines, more adventitious roots are found in the surface layers of the soil. Root induction is dependent on the interaction of different hormone networks (for a summary comparing adventitious and lateral roots, see Atkinson et al. –K, Potassium deficiency; –P, phosphorus deficiency; –Zn = zinc deficiency. In rice, root emergence also depends on the age and developmental stage of the respective node (Lorbiecke and Sauter, 1999; Steffens et al., 2012). SlCYP1 changes the abundance of auxin efflux carriers of the PIN family at the plasma membrane and, hence, modulates polar auxin transport (Oh et al., 2006; Ivanchenko et al., 2015; Retzer and Luschnig, 2015; Spiegelman et al., 2015). However, the involvement of strigolactones in submergence-induced adventitious root development has yet to be determined. 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